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Extravagantly praised in her lifetime, the poet and novelist Elinor Wylie suffered a posthumous reversal in her reputation but has experienced something of a revival of interest among feminist critics since the 1980s.

Growing up in a socially prominent family in Somerville, New Jersey, as the daughter of a lawyer who later became solicitor general of the United States, she was trained for the life of a debutante and a society wife, but she rebelled against that destiny and became notorious, in her time, for her multiple marriages and affairs. Her childhood was unhappy, according to Edward Kelly in the Dictionary of Literary Biography; her father had a mistress, her mother was a chronic hypochondriac, and at least one of her siblings, a brother, committed suicide. Another brother was rescued after jumping off a ship, and a sister died under equivocal circumstances. Wylie herself, although known for her beauty, suffered from dangerously high blood pressure all her adult life; it caused unbearable migraines, and would kill her by means of a stroke at the age of forty-three.

Wylie’s first marriage, to Philip Hichborn in 1905, occurred “on the rebound” from another romance, according to Karen F. Stein in Dictionary of Literary Biography. Hichborn, a would-be poet, was emotionally unstable, and it was during this period that Wylie’s headaches began. In 1910, she left her husband and their son to escape to England with a married lawyer, Horace Wylie, under the assumed name of Waring; this event caused a scandal in the Washington, D.C., social circles Elinor Wylie had frequented. Encouraged by Horace Wylie, Elinor published privately, and anonymously, a small book of poems she had written since 1902, Incidental Numbers (1912). The couple returned to the United States at the outbreak of World War I, and lived in Boston, Augusta, Georgia, and Washington, D.C., under the stress of social ostracism and Elinor’s illness. Wishing for a second child, she suffered several miscarriages between 1914 and 1916, as well as a stillbirth and the live birth of a premature child who died after one week.

The Wylies did not officially marry until 1916, after Elinor’s first husband had committed suicide and Horace’s first wife had divorced him. By that time, however, the couple were drawing apart. Elinor Wylie began to move in literary circles in New York; her friends there numbered John Peale Bishop, Edmund Wilson, John Dos Passos, Sinclair Lewis, Carl Van Vechten, and her future third husband, William Rose Benet. Encouraged by her friends, she submitted poems to Poetry magazine despite her own self-doubts; four were published by Harriet Monroe in the May, 1920, edition, including her most widely anthologized poem, “Velvet Shoes.”

Benet had begun to act as informal literary agent for Wylie, and feeling the increasing pull of the literary world, she separated from Horace Wylie in 1921. Commented Stein in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, “She captivated the literary world with her slender, tawny-haired beauty, personal elegance, acid wit, and technical virtuosity.” However, Wylie was no salon dilettante; working hard, she published four volumes of poetry and four novels between 1921 and her death in 1928, in addition to writing some essays and reviews and working as a literary editor of prominent magazines such as Vanity Fair.

In 1921, Wylie’s volume Nets to Catch the Wind, which many critics still consider to contain her best poems, was issued. In addition to “Velvet Shoes,” it contains the notable poems “August,” “Wild Peaches,” “A Proud Lady,” “The Eagle and the Mole,” “Sanctuary,” “Winter Sleep,” “Madman’s Song,” “The Church-Bell,” and “A Crowded Trolley Car.” Her poems were miniature in scope, displaying what Wylie in an essay called her “small clean technique.” Stanzas and lines were quite short, and the effect of her images was of a highly detailed, polished surface. Often, her poems expressed a dissatisfaction with the realities of life on the part of a speaker who aspired to a more gratifying world of art and beauty. Nets to Catch the Wind “conveys a deep knowledge of life and evidences a mature talent,” in the view of a Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism contributor; in its own time, it attracted the praise of poets such as Edna St. Vincent Millay and Louis Untermeyer.

Nets to Catch the Wind was followed in 1923 by another successful volume of verse, Black Armour, which Stein in the Dictionary of Literary Biography viewed as exemplifying, and confessing, the limitations of Wylie’s miniaturist method. An admirer of the British Romantic poets, and particularly of Shelley, to a degree that some critics have seen as abnormal, Wylie seemed to realize, nevertheless, that she was a genius of a lesser rank, one who could only create a “gilded bird” as opposed to Shelley’s gloriously alive skylark. Stein, commenting that most of the personae in Black Armour are outcasts from society, interprets the work as self-pitying rather than maturely self-aware.

In the same year as Black Armour, Wylie’s first novel, Jennifer Lorn: A Sedate Extravaganza, was published to considerable acclaim: famously, the critic Carl Van Vechten organized a torchlight parade in Manhattan to celebrate its publication. The novel is a romantic pastiche set in Britain and India in the late 1700s; it encompasses the love and marriage of handsome, wealthy Gerald Poynyard and the fragile, beautiful Jennifer. Van Vechten hailed it as “the only successfully sustained satire in English.” Modern critics, such as Kelly in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, are more prone to admire its lapidary passages of prose description and to express misgivings about its melodramatic plot and shaky structure; Alice R. Bensen, in the Reference Guide to American Literature, called it “a long catalogue of lovely, delicate objects.”

Wylie’s second novel, The Venetian Glass Nephew (1925) is considered her best by Kelly for its unity of theme; however, many critics would assign that honor to her fourth novel, the 1928 Mr. Hodge and Mr. Hazard, of which Stein asserted, “Critics agree that this book is her best novel.” In The Venetian Glass Nephew, a Roman Catholic cardinal seeks a nephew to whom he can bequeath his generosity. He is drawn to the lair of a glassblower who makes a handsome nephew for the cardinal out of glass. When a beautiful young woman falls in love with the artificial nephew and finds him unable to love in return, she volunteers to be turned into glass herself, in what Kelly terms “one of modern literature’s rare reversals of the Pygmalion theme.”

Wylie’s two later novels both express her idolatry of Shelley. In The Orphan Angel (1926), the great young poet is rescued from drowning off an Italian cape and travels to America, where he encounters the dangers of the frontier. Although the novel was a Book-of-the-Month selection in 1926, its critical and popular reception both were mixed. In retrospect, Kelly in the Dictionary of Literary Biography identified it as “her only failure,” and Stein explained, “Its chief difficulty is that it fails to achieve Wylie’s purpose, that of kindling admiration for the heroic poet. Instead, the novel becomes a picaresque exploration with minimal plot interest.”

Much more successful, says the consensus of critics, was Mr. Hodge and Mr. Hazard, which portrays the decline of a fictitious late-Romantic poet in an England clouded by the beginnings of Victorianism. Despite its historical setting, the novel contains characters and scenes that were recognizable to Wylie’s friends. According to a Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism contributor, this novel “is a sensitive allegory of the poet’s tragedy in a world indifferent to the artist’s needs.”

Wylie’s third volume of verse, Trivial Breath (1928), was dedicated to Shelley. It appeared at a time of personal upheaval. She had married Benet in 1923, but the marriage became strained, and the two agreed to live apart, Wylie moving to London. By 1927, she had already written to her second husband, Horace Wylie, of her enduring love for him. In 1928, she met a married man, Henry de Clifford Woodhouse, with whom she fell in love. This love inspired a series of nineteen sonnets, One Person, which she later included as the first section of Angels and Earthly Creatures (1928).

These love poems seem, at times, to express an understanding that she had previously lacked genuine passion, and therefore to claim that she has achieved such a state; for this reason, some critics consider it her most mature poetry. This view is countered, however, by Thomas A. Gray in his 1969 study Elinor Wylie, who stated that “Wylie’s later work . . . represents a reversal of the normal direction of development of a writer’s art, in which his unique way of using language seems ever more the ‘necessary and inevitable’ expression of his individual way of seeing and feeling. . . . The ‘new’ way of speaking in One Person does not suggest any new way of feeling.” It must be added, however, that Stein in the Dictionary of Literary Biography considered Gray’s study “unsympathetic.”

A very different view was proposed in 1979 by Wylie’s biographer Stanley Olson, who called the One Person sonnets “perhaps, her finest achievement. They are testimony to the power of her emotions, distilled and purified. . . . The love in these lyrics is not a private love, not a variety of confession, but an abstracted one, free of the protection of subjectivity. . . . The nineteen sonnets are paced with strength, energy and undeniable feeling, sustained as a group by shifting through the complexities and vicissitudes of love.”

It was while going over a typescript of Angels and Earthly Creatures, on a Christmas visit to Benet in New York in 1928, that Wylie died. Picking up a volume of John Donne’s poems, she asked Benet for a glass of water; when he returned with it, as Stein recounted in the Dictionary of Literary Biography, “she walked toward him, murmured, ‘Is that all it is?,’ and fell to the floor, dead of a stroke.” Her reputation was kept high for a while by her surviving champions, but after the 1950s, both attention and esteem flagged. Assessing her poetry, Gray in 1969 wrote that it “is largely a portrayal of the stratagems by which a fragile sensibility shields itself from the threats and shocks of existence in a world too rough for it. . . . She forever draws attention away from what she is saying by the way in which she insists on saying it. This characteristic explains the thinness of her themes and the fragility of her style: in place of fresh perceptions, she very often gives an artificially posed personality and, in place of style, stylishness.”

Stein, in contrast, pointed respectfully to more than one passage of Wylie’s verse in which the poet calls realistic attention to the disappointments of marriage and the contradictions and constrictions of traditional womanhood. Calling Wylie’s gifts “notable, but problematic,” Stein in the Dictionary of Literary Biography averred, “Inclusion of Wylie’s poetry in recently published anthologies testifies to a continuing interest, and may hopefully lead to further examination of her poetry and prose.” Kelly, appreciating Wylie’s prose as “always clear and undigressive,” reserved his greater admiration for her verse, and concluded, “Without doubt the poems and novels of Elinor Wylie can stand on their own, even if we do not know the tortured woman beneath the silver-cool facade of physical beauty.”

Poet and novelist. Vanity Fair, poetry editor, 1923-25; Literary Guild, editor, 1926-28; New Republic, contributing editor, 1926-28.

(As anonymous) Incidental Numbers, privately printed (London), 1912.
Nets to Catch the Wind, Harcourt, Brace (New York, NY), 1921.
Black Armour, Doran (New York, NY), 1923.
Trivial Breath, Knopf (New York City and London), 1928.
Angels and Earthly Creatures: A Sequence of Sonnets (also known as One Person), privately printed, Borough Press (Henley on Thames, England), 1928.
Angels and Earthly Creatures (includes Angels and Earthly Creatures: A Sequence of Sonnets), Knopf (New York City and London), 1929.
Birthday Sonnet, Random House (New York, NY), 1929.
Last Poems of Elinor Wylie, transcribed by Jane D. Wise, foreword by William Rose Benet, tribute by Edith Olivier, Knopf (New York City), 1943, Academy Chicago (Chicago), 1982.
Jennifer Lorn: A Sedate Extravaganza, Doran (New York, NY), 1923, Richards (London), 1924.
The Venetian Glass Nephew, Doran, 1925, Academy Chicago, 1984.
The Orphan Angel, Knopf (New York, NY), 1926, published as Mortal Image, Heinemann, 1927.
Mr. Hodge & Mr. Hazard, Knopf (New York City) and Heinemann (London), 1928, Academy Chicago, 1984.
Elinor Wylie, edited by Laurence Jordan, Simon & Schuster (New York City), 1926.
Collected Poems of Elinor Wylie, Knopf (New York, NY), 1932.
Collected Prose of Elinor Wylie, Knopf (New York, NY), 1933.
William Rose Benet, Poems Read at the City College of New York, May 8, 1938 (includes readings of several poems by Wylie), Archive of Recorded Poetry and Literature, Library of Congress, 1952.
Papers reside in the Elinor Wylie Archive, Beinecke Rare Book Room and Manuscript Library, Yale University, New Haven, CT, and in the Berg Collection, New York Public Library.

Benet, William Rose, The Prose and Poetry of Elinor Wylie, Wheaton College Press, 1934.
Brenner, Rica, Poets of Our Time, Harcourt, Brace, 1941.
Clark, Emily, Innocence Abroad, Knopf, 1931.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 9: American Novelists, 1910-1945, Gale (Detroit), 1981.
Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 45, American Poets, 1880-1945, Gale (Detroit), 1986.
Gray, Thomas A., Elinor Wylie, Twayne Publishers, 1969.
Hoyt, Nancy, Elinor Wylie: The Portrait of an Unknown Lady, Bobbs-Merrill, 1935.
Kamp, Jim, editor, Reference Guide to American Literature, third edition, St. James Press (Detroit), 1994, p. 938.
Kazin, Alfred, On Native Grounds: An Interpretation of Modern American Prose Literature, Reynal & Hitchcock, 1942.
Olson, Stanley, Elinor Wylie: A Life Apart, a Biography, Dial Press (New York, NY), 1979.
Southworth, James G., More Modern American Poets, Basil Blackwell, 1954.
Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, Volume 8, Gale (Detroit), 1982, pp. 520-539.
Untermeyer, Louis, From Another World, Harcourt, Brace, 1939.
Van Doren, Carl, Carl Van Doren, Viking, 1945.
Watts, Emily Stipes, The Poetry of American Women from 1632 to 1945, University of Texas Press, 1977.
Wilson, Edmund, The Shores of Light: A Literary Chronicle of the Twenties and Thirties, Farrar, Straus, 1952.
Wood, Clement, Poets of America, Dutton, 1925.
Arizona Quarterly, winter, 1963, pp. 343-357.
Bookman, February, 1922; January, 1927.
Boston Transcript, November 30, 1921, p. 9; June 23, 1923, p. 2; November 21, 1925, p. 3; July 27, 1928, p. 3.
Carrell, December, 1968, pp. 17-28.
Christian Science Monitor, July 18, 1928, p. 8; June 18, 1932, p. 6.
Dial, January, 1922; June, 1923, pp. 624-626.
English Record, October, 1970, pp. 108-112.
English Studies, December, 1938, pp. 241-250.
Literary Review, January 28, 1922, p. 379.
Nation, June 27, 1923; October 21, 1925; April 18, 1928; August 22, 1928; June 19, 1929; June 15, 1932; April 3, 1943.
New Leader, February 6, 1984.
New Republic, December 5, 1923, pp. 16, 18; October 7, 1925; April 4, 1928; August 1, 1928; June 5, 1929; September 7, 1932, p. 107; May 3, 1943.
New York Evening Post, September 8, 1928, p. 5.
New York Times, June 10, 1923, p. 12; September 27, 1925, p. 11; October 31, 1926, p. 7; March 18, 1928, p. 9; April 28, 1929, p. 2; March 14, 1943, p. 20.
New York Times Book Review, November 18, 1984, p. 54.
New York Tribune, September 20, 1925, p. 1.
PMLA, September, 1941, pp. 841-860.
Poetry, June, 1943.
Saturday Review of Literature, October 3, 1925; November 13, 1926; March 31, 1928; October 20, 1928; May 25, 1929; May 21, 1932; December 2, 1933.
Times Literary Supplement, May 24, 1928, p. 397; December 20, 1928, p. 1014.
Twentieth-Century Literature, April, 1966, pp. 15-26.
Virginia Quarterly Review, summer, 1930, pp. 335-341.
Yale Review, summer, 1932.
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