Биография Гу Руопу (на английском языке)

Оригинал материала

Gu Ruopu (1592-1681), a poetess in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty, was born in Qiantang, Zhejiang Province. She was the daughter of Gu Youbai, the Prime Minister of Shanglin in the late Ming Dynasty. Tong Yi Gong Sheng Huang Dong Sheng Mao Wu’s wife. Early widows, with virtuous filial piety. He was born with wisdom. He inherited his family’s learning and was good at reading. He was well versed in classics, history and allusions of this dynasty. He was the best girl poet in Hangzhou during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Both sons and grandsons were brought up by him. He is also known as Xiaoyu Yin manuscript.

brief account of the author’s life

Early widows

Gu’s family name is from Cangjiang, Xiyan, Yuean and Youbai. Gu Ruopu was born with great wisdom. At the age of 15, she married Huang maowu, the eldest son of Huang Ruheng. The Huang family is also a scholarly family. In her spare time, Gu Ruopu and her husband sing and answer, enjoying themselves. Huang maowu failed repeatedly. Gu Ruopu once wrote a poem to comfort the master. In the 47th year of Wanli (1619), Huang maowu died after a serious illness. At this time, he had not won any imperial examination. His father Huang Ruheng had to place his hope on his young widow and her two sons, can and Wei. So he tried to impart his knowledge of literature to his grandchildren. “Fortunately, the second child’s grandchildren have already seen the leading role. They are wise and have a good knowledge of literature and science. They can be mothers, but they can be taught. Fortunately, their children are still alive.” Gu Ruopu received literary education when she was young, and when she was a bride, she sang with her husband. But under the guidance of her father-in-law, she systematically studied Zhouyi, the book of songs, Taoist classics Zhuangzi, Chuci and the prose of Qin and Han Dynasties.


Gu Ruopu takes her mother’s work as a teacher very seriously. She built a reading boat for her eldest son and moored it in a hidden corner of the West Lake. For this reason, Gu Ruopu once wrote a book called “building a study boat for two children in autumn and mooring a broken bridge”: hearing about Tao and Xiong amuxian, he turned to choose the bridge side. Pavilions of ancient trees flow on the moon, rippling light Fu pan blue smoke. And since he lived alone in Yangzi house, he was allowed to point to Mi’s boat from afar. Gao Feng still remembers the threshold of the floating plum blossom, the long chanting of the short candle and the old felt. During the day, Gu Ruopu hired a private tutor to guide her sons, while she systematically reviewed the books left in her husband’s library. In her book with her younger brother, written after her husband’s death, she said, “during the day, she would read the four books, chronicles, Ming history and political treaties. In the evening, she would sit with her sons and explain to them what she had learned in the day. They usually spend the night in it Gu Ruopu’s two sons became literati when they grew up, but they did not get any imperial examination fame.

Women’s school

Gu Ruopu’s educational foresight has a stronger influence on her family women. She believed that the ability to read and understand classics was crucial to women’s morality, so she hired a private school teacher to guide the girls in her family to read and write. Under the influence and drive of Gu Ruopu, there are almost all poetesses in Gu Huang’s family. According to the West cold boudoir chant, Gu Zhiqiong’s niece has the word Yurui, and the style of work poetry and prose is parallel. There are many poems, such as the Fu of the Northern Expedition before and after, the collection of jiefangchu, the balcony of xuchu, the fisherman of Xixi, the flower of Hezhu, and the Jingci temple. His eldest son can married the Ding family. His name was Yuru and his word was Lianbi. He is good at filial piety and poetry. According to the collection of hangjun poems, his grandchildren can also write poems. One day in the snow, sun Qiqi’s works were brilliant. Next, sun Qijun, Qilong and Qijiang worked hard to make peace, and they had already made progress. There was a sound in the sleeves of Yuan’s three granddaughters, and his wife looked at it, and each of them became one. He said with a smile that all young girls and grandchildren know that they are eager to learn. They can report to the underground by hand. His granddaughters Gu Si and Gu Changren were famous poetesses. Gu Si was named Qiji, including jingyutang collection and Cuiyuan collection; Gu Chang was named chongmei, Xiaji Xianshu, Xie Tingxiang Yong and Liang chanyin. Huang Zhisheng, his granddaughter, is a well-known poet who died prematurely. Gu Ruopu’s view on women is traditional and conservative, but she never opposes women’s literary creation. In her preface to the collection of woyuexuan, she pointed out: “the only way to know a woman’s duty is to drink and eat. Does she dare to write in order to compete with the literati? Since ancient times, such as ban (Zhao) and Zuo (Fen) Zhu Shuyuan, who wrote a lot of articles to amuse themselves, Tongguan and Zhenguan should be discussed together, or it’s not a special matter. ” When an old woman scolded her, Gu Ruopu wrote a long poem to defend her belief in female literature education. She pointed out that literary education is essential to the pursuit of women’s morality. Without it, women can not be good wives and mothers.

cooperative association

Gu Ruopu’s greatest contribution to Chinese female culture is to cultivate and organize the first female literary group in Chinese history – Jiaoyuan poetry society. Jiaoyuan poetry society is divided into two periods. In the early stage, it was called “Jiaoyuan Wuzi society”, and the organizer was Gu Zhiqiong, who recruited all the women to start Jiaoyuan poetry society. The five sons are Xu can, Gu Si, Zhu rouze, Lin Yining and Yunyi, the daughter of Qiong. Later, it was called “Jiaoyuan Qizi society”, and the organizer was Lin Yining. Among them, Chai Jingyi, Qian Yunyi, Qian jingwan, Feng Youling, Gu Qiji, Mao Anfang and Li duanfang. Gu Zhiqiong and Lin Yining, the organizers of the two periods of Jiaoyuan poetry society, are Gu Ruopu’s niece and granddaughter-in-law. They are only nominal organizers, and Gu Ruopu is the biggest backstage of their organization of women’s poetry society. According to yunzhaqi Shihua, Gu Ruopu was not dead before he was 30 years old. All the grandchildren and their grandchildren can write poems with rhyme and enjoy themselves with knowledge and care. There is a saying that “in order to repay Jiuyuan, we should treat each other, and we may leave a line of poems and books.”. Gu Ruopu also wrote a preface to Gu Xiang Lou Ji for his granddaughter-in-law Qian fenglun. It can be seen that in her later years, Gu Ruopu did often live an elegant life with her granddaughter in the landscape of Hangzhou.

Longevity and death

Gu Ruopu was a “doomsday” in his later years, and his experience was also very tragic. First, his granddaughter Zhisheng died prematurely, and his granddaughter Gu chongmei died prematurely. After his niece Gu Zhiqiong and husband Qian Kaizong, he killed his head and made a clean sweep of his family because of the Jiangnan imperial examination case. After that, sun Hongsheng and Hong Chang ran away from home because of “the difficulty of family relationship” and died or lingered in exile. His granddaughter-in-law Qian fenglun was in trouble because of the double disasters of her husband’s family and her mother’s family. Gu Ruopu, who was 90 years old, returned to the West in a series of disasters. now scholars have another view that the author of a dream of Red Mansions is Hong Sheng, and the main life prototype of the work is “Jiaoyuan sisters”. The image of the old grandparent Jia Mu is taken from the true deeds of Gu Ruopu, the grandparent of Hong Sheng, the leader of the Jiaoyuan sisters and the common reverence of the four Honghuang qiangu families in Hangzhou.

Representative works


The coming of the king

Since you came out, you ignore the hairpin jade. The water of Hunan is deep, and the trace of singing is still in the bamboo. Since you came out, the mirror has never opened. Thinking of you is like the moon, shining on the dressing table. Since you came out, the moon is beautiful. Thinking of you is like a network of weft.

“He Fu Zi Xi Xi Luo Mei”

He meanders into the Xixi River, and the river is deep. On the Bank of the river, fish are hung, and bamboo is covered on the thatched eaves. He chirped the green feather, and the fragrance of the forest filled him. Clear snow flying residual Ying, sitting love dumping ant green. the traces of lumen are not lost, and they share the same destination with their sons.

Dusk rain

The grass in the stream depends on the floating jade, and the trees in the dyke brush the misty smoke. Pu fan on the river is about to disappear, and the mulberry girls in the village fight for it.

In the lake

The light of the lake is dim, the smoke is cold, and the river duck and sand duck do not fly. Just want to hold the piano light don’t go, keep lotus points green on Luoyi.


I can’t bear to worry about my illness and scratch my head. I have been worried for 23 years. But I don’t know how to accommodate many worries.

Silk reeling on the river

peach blossom, willow drooping, slender waist and tender face, fragrant wind blowing. Yinger’s voice is smooth, and the silk carts are crowing in the hall. A young man riding a horse with a gold bullet, green power and red side. I can’t bear to watch silk reeling all day long, and the cold weeps cry in the autumn curtain sooner or later.

A book for two children in autumn

Wen Dao and Xiong amuxian, turn to win the bridge. Pavilions of ancient trees flow sparse moon, rippling light curl pan blue smoke. He lived alone in Yangzi house and let him point to the boat of the rice family. Gao Feng still remembers the threshold of the floating plum blossom, the long chanting of the short candle and the old felt.

Pounding clothes

He cherishes himself for his fifteen years, but does not live in seclusion. Suddenly surprised wandering double headed carp, with a book to cross the river. I’m worried about reading. I’m in the north of Tianshan Mountain. Tianshan Mountains block the flow of stars and drive hongluan across ten continents. You hang a carved bow to control the light riding, and I hear that Hu Yan resents the tall building. My eyes are full of beautiful scenery, and my hair turned white last night. the sound of pounding clothes breaks the frost wind, and the autumn moon is so miserable. In autumn, the curtain is long and the box is shining. The mandarin ducks are tied on all sides, and the Luozhang group returns to the beautiful fragrance. Ming Luo Zhang Fu Rong Jin, Hua Zhulan Gao Ming did not sleep. Xie will leave the mirror as bright as a knife for the king to shine on the pillow. After drinking all the gold, I can’t see you. The Xiang curtain is full of resentment and smoke. Yushu still wants to March the frontier fortress, and is willing to chase a cloud of Wushan.


With my brother

My husband passed away in the clouds, my bones were broken, my soul was broken, I cried at the funeral, and I didn’t die for a long time. How can one look down on the world and return to the so-called evil works of Wanli? It’s easy to die, but difficult to keep the festival. Some people are lonely and dare not learn from Guwan bear’s paintings until they are successful. When it was, uncle Fang supervised Xijiang. My parents and brothers, Yu Fuyuan, did not study the classics and history. Xi despised all the orphans with his lessons and waited for it to be completed. I was so worried that I would not follow my master in Jiujing. So in his spare time, Chen FA’s collection of books, from the biographies of the four classics, ancient history books, huanglangtongji and dazhengji, can’t be seen day and night. Both of them came in from the outside. They often made the bonlantern sit in the corner, which was well known by Chen Shuo and me. They were even more familiar with each other. At the end of the third night, they stopped. Gu Fu is happy, but he does not know that he is exhausted. As the sun and the moon gradually increase, we can see and accumulate the wisdom of the sages, cultivate morality, wash our hearts, and talk about Sao Ya Ci and Fu. We can travel and rest in the hope that we can spontaneous their grief and relieve their anger and depression. And spring birds and autumn insects,